Admin on Jan th, 2019

There are several types of situation that may cause your skin allergy or even turning red, and burn.
Thanks for the technology, now we can offer the right ways to decrease inflammation and itching.
I.    Itching – skin barrier is the most important and the first warrior that keep your skin health.
                    – with the skin's pH increase, it will cause KLK 5/7 activate the PAR-2 and then TRPV-1
                     , that will cause itching. If you scratch, it will become hot and red and causing
                     inflammation. So, the best ways in skin care for stopping itching is controlled your
                     skin pH. 
II.    Inflammation – There are several types of molecules can affect the immune system
A.    IL-1
①    Can increase the Keratinocyte hyperplasia, B-cell differentiation, T-cell activation, enhancing
        the neutrophils and macrophage. 
②    With tiny IL-1 can cause skin damage which let it be one of the key factors in the detection
        of inflammation. 
③    The UV light will keep keratinocyte secrete IL-1 which cause photoaging.
B.    IL-2
①    Secrete by activated T-cell
②    Cause inflammation
C.    IL-4
①    Secrete by T-cell, macrophage, and eosinophils
②    IgE will mature the T-cell, macrophage in causing inflammation.
D.    IL-5
①    Secrete by Monocytes, Eosinophils
②    Induce the differentiation and growth of Basophils.
E.     IL-6
①    Increase the function of IL-1, TNF-α.    
F.     IL-8
①    There is a chemoattractant with Neutrophils.
G.    IL-12
①    Produced by Antigen Presenting cell, can increase the cell-mediated Immunity.
H.    IL-α (Tumor Necrosis Factor)
①    Can induce IL-1, which can also cause inflammation.
②    Connect with Macrophage to synthesis prostaglandin in causing inflammation.
I.     NF-kB (Nuclear factor kappa-light0chain-enhancer of activated B cells)
①   Exist in all kinds of cells, which is the main key to manage DNA transcription protein, almost
       every inflammation has influence with it. Summary, Speaking about using skin care product
       to reduce inflammation or itching, the IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α may be much more effective
       , others may not have better results.   
J.     IL-10
①    Can lower the MHC class I and block Macrophage function.
②    Can break down cytokines, inhibit No and Peroxides for achieving anti-inflammation. But if
        IL-10 was produced by Non-melanoma skin cancer, it will inhibit the function of lymphocyte
        causing tumor growth. Another important molecule influencing the inflammation is the receptor. 
L.    TLRs-1 (Toll-like Receptor) 
①   Innate Immunology ⇒ when TLRs activated, it will stimulate cytokines in causing inflammation.
②   There are several domains of TLRs (TLRs-1,2…), but they all have similar pathways ⇒ MyD 88 pathway
                  ↳ [NF-kB]↑→ Nuclear start translocation
                  Immune gone starts stimulating DNA translation.
③   Position:
        Keratinocyte: TLR-1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, 10
                     also in Monocytes, Macrophage, Fibroblast.

M.    Anti-microbial peptides (AMPs) 
①   They are a group of peptides that kill Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms, fungi and some viruses.
②   There are two major families, the defensins and the cathelicidins.
③   The cathelicidins have a broad spectrum of anti-microbial activity and act as chemoattractants for a range of inflammatory cells.
N.    Langerhans cells
①   It functions as antigen-presenting cells (APCs).

②   Following injury to the epidermis, Langerhans cells undergo changes that allow them to leave the epidermis, enter dermal lymphatics and migrate to the paracortical areas of draining lymph nodes, and present antigen-MHC class II-complexes to T-cells.
③   The T-cell blasts then return to the site of the antigen source in the skin.
O.    T-cells
①   The cells are transient in the epidermis and are typically found around post-capillary venules in the dermis and around the skin appendages.

Dysfunction of the immune system in the skin is an important factor in wound healing and in conditions such as dermatitis, bullous disorders, psoriasis, and cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.